Evaluierungsmethoden

Methods for evaluations in the GLKS

Ro1

Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.) Behrens, resistance to pathotype Ro1.

Research institute/worker: Institute for Plant Breeding (IPZ)/Institute for Potato Research (IfK) Gross Lüsewitz; ROTHACKER, D. and STELTER, H., 1954-1972; KUHN, R. and LELLBACH, H., 1972-1991.

Plant material: Mainly seedlings and growing of clones, partly also shoot cuttings.

Infection material: Garden mould with Ro1 nematode cysts, 10000-15000 eggs/

larvae per 100 ccm.< /P>

Infection method: Root-bale-method with counting the cysts at the external root

bale in clay pots with 7 cm in diameter.

Period of investigations: During the whole year.

Classification: R = 0-3 cysts per pot, M = 3-15 cysts per pot, S = >15 cysts per pot.

Pa2

Globodera pallida (Stone) Behrens, resistance to pathotype Pa2, different populations.

Research institute/worker: IPZ/IfK Gross Lüsewitz; ROTHACKER, D. and STELTER, H. until 1972; LELLBACH, H. and KUHN, R. since 1972.

Plant material: Mainly seedlings and clone growing, partly also shoot cuttings, 1-50 genotypes per accession.

Infection material: infected garden mould (10000-15000 eggs/larvae per 100 ccm) or adding of 3000 larvae per pot.

Infection method: First research by root-bale-method with counting the cysts at the external root bale mainly March-May, repetition as an intensive test within selected material with determination of Pf/-Pi-quotient at the end of growing season.

Classification: R = 0-3 cysts per pot, M = 3-15 cysts per pot, S = >15 cysts per pot.

Pa3

Globodera pallida (Stone) Behrens, resistance to pathotype Pa3, population Delmsen, 58.6, Chavornay.

Research institute/ worker: IPZ/IfK Gross Lüsewitz; ROTHACKER, D. and STELTER, H. until 1972; KUHN, R. and LELLBACH, H. since 1972; IPK Genebank External Branch Gross Lüsewitz and Country Plant Protect Service Rostock, KUHN, R., SCHÜLER K., KRUSE, J. since 1992.

Plant material: Mainly seedlings and clone growing, partly also shoot cuttings, 1-50 genotypes per accession.

Infection material: nematodes infected garden mould (2000-3000 eggs/larvae per 100 ccm).

Infection method: root bale method with counting the cysts at the external root bale mainly March-May.

Classification: R = 0-3 cysts per pot, M = 3-15 cysts per pot, S = >15 cysts per pot.

Latebl

Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, Late Blight on foliage, horizontal resistance.

Research institute/worker: IPZ Gross Lüsewitz, ROTHACKER, D. and JESCHKE, S. 1964-1968. Plant material: Full grown detached leaves of the middle part of the plant during flowering (10-20 genotypes per number).

Fungal material: Strain collection of IPZ Gross Lüsewitz, annual control of pathogenity, mixture of high virulent races.

Inoculation method: Pathogen suspension, determinated number of sporangia / ml after release of zoospores: 2-3 drops at the adaxial surface of the leaf, 17C and 100% relative humidity.

Detection: First evaluation 4 days after infection, second evaluation 6 days after infection by following classification:

a) spots: S = ca 75% of leaf area with necrosis

M= 25-50% of leaf area with necrosis

R = without or few stips at leaf

b) sporangiophores: S = a lot of sporangiophores, partly dense mycelium

M= partly a lot of sporangiophores

R = 0 - 6 sporangiophores

Lateblge

Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, Late Blight on foliage, vertical resistance.

Research institute/worker: IPZ Gross Lüsewitz, ROTHACKER, D. et JESCHKE, S., 1964-1968. Plant material: Full grown detached leaves of the middle part of the plant (10-20 genotypes per number).

Fungal material: Strain collection of IPZ Gross Lüsewitz, annual control of

Pathogenity by single spore culture. Assessment with separated pathotypes.

Inoculation method: Zoospore suspension, 2-3 drops at the adaxial surface of the leaf, 17C and 100% relative humidity.

Period of investigations: May - August.

Tuberbl

Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, Late Blight on tubers, horizontal resistance.

Research institute/worker: IPZ/IfK Gross Lüsewitz, DARSOW, U., OERTEL, H., HINZE, E., 1968-1990; Federal Centre for Breeding Research and IPK Genebank External Branch Groß Lüsewitz, DARSOW, U., SCHÜLER, K.

Plant material: 3-5 tubers per genotype, 6-9 genotypes per accession. Test according to grow cycle over 30 years.

Fugal material: Pathotype mixture, least races 1.2.3.4.5.6.7.(8.9.)10.11., 9 sporangia per cmm, dipping in zoospore suspension, tuber cut.

Inoculation method: Small tuber assay by DARSOW, J. Phytopathology 135 (1992) 199-206.

Assessment in December - February.

Evaluation of aerial mycelium formation and tissue browning and classification after both notes.

Phoma

Phoma exigua Desm. var. foveata (Foister) Boerema, propagation resistance.

Research institute/worker: IPZ Gross Lüsewitz; ROTHACKER, D., EFFMERT, M..

Plant material: 3-5 tubers per genotype.

Infection material: Insulations from contaminated tubers - mycelium strain collection of IPZ Gross Lüsewitz.

Investigation method: Inoculation of mycelium ca 3 mm deep into tuber tissue, after infection put the tubers in cold storage (6-10C), evaluation 10 weeks later.

Period of investigations: February-April.

Sy2

Synchytrium endobioticum (Schilb. ) Perc., resistance (hypersensibility) to race 2 and other races.

Research institute/worker: IPZ Gross Lüsewitz, EFFMERT, M. , race 1, 2; Pflanzenschutzamt Münster, HEDDERGOTT, H., race 6; BZA Klein Machnow, GOTTSCHLING, W., races 4, 5, 9, 10; WIR Leningrad, LECHNOVICZ, W.S., JAKOWLEWA, W.I., Cenovice, race M (Mezhgorskij).

Plant material: Tuber growing of 3 genotypes per accession at lowest with 3-5 tubers, partly tested in laboratory, partly tested in field (race 2, Gross Lüsewitz);

Infection material: Laboratory test: isolation of pathotypes from spontaneus infected plants in field, determination of races by test assortment, propagation under controlled conditions; Field test: propagation of a determinated race at a natural contaminated field, determination of races by test assortment.

Infection method: Laboratory test: GLYNNE-LEMMERZAHL method, field test: growing at infection field.

Period of investigations: Laboratory test: October-March, field test: April-October.

Detection and classification: Laboratory test: by KÖHLER, 1931: R = 75% of shoots without necrosis and sori and no more than 25% of shoots have only few necrosis and sori, field test: R = plants without visual changes, especially at tubers and stolons, S = with deformations and changes.

Softrot

Erwinia carotovora ssp atroseptica (Helmers et Dowson) Dye, propagation resistance.

Research institute/worker: IPZ/IfK Gross Lüsewitz; ROTHACKER, D.; HAHN, W.; HENNIGER, H.; LELLBACH, H.; 1966-1971.

Plant material: Tubers (5-10 per genotype).

Infection material: Isolation from attacked tubers, mixture (6 components), strain collection of IPZ/IfK Gross Lüsewitz.

Infection method: Pathogen suspension, inoculation into tuber tissue, storage for 10 days. Period of investigations: December-January.

Classification: R1 = without rotting, infection spot corked, M = little rotting process or rotted spot small by corking, S = moderate-strong extension of rotting spot, no corking.

Plrv

PLRV resistance.

Research institute/worker: IPZ Gross Lüsewitz, U. HAMANN, 1960 - 1964.

Plant material: Seedlings, average 20 per accession.

Infection material: PLRV-isolate from cultivar "Sieglinde", locality of origin Bernburg.

Infection method: Seedling infection by putting of 10 PLRV transmitting Mycus persicae per plant and natural aphid invasion (Mycus persicae) , grafting on healthy "Sieglinde" plants. Period of investigations: May-June.

Pvy

PVY resistance (extreme resistance, hypersensibility).

Research institute/worker: IPZ Gross Lüsewitz, HAMANN, U. until 1964, NEITZEL, K. 1961-1967, WITT, I.K. until 1960.

Plant material: Seedlings, shoot cuttings and clones; 12-20 genotypes per number.

Infection material: PVY-isolate M3 (TBRV) from "Ackersegen" and further propagation on Nicotiana tabacum cultivar "Samsun".

Infection method: Infection by hand and partly by spray pistol, grafting of clones on PVY-infected tomato plants. Period of investigations: March-July.

Detection and classification: Visually, S = susceptible, I = extreme resistance,

R = necrotic, probable hypersensitive. Mainly test plants (Nicotiana tabacum cultivar "Samsun", dms-bastard A6), generally differentiation between resistant (immune) and susceptible, by grafting also further control of hypersensitive reaction.

Pvx

PVX resistance (extreme resistance, hypersensibility).

Research institute/worker: IPZ Gross Lüsewitz, WITT, I.K. until 1960; HAMANN, U. 1961-1964.

Plant material: Seedlings, average 20 per number.

Infection material: PVX-isolate from cultivar "Erstling", propagation on Nicotiana tabacum cultivar "Samsun".

Infection method: Inoculation of seedlings by hand and growing of clones, grafting of clone plants on PVX-infected tomato plants. Period of investigations: April-June.

Detection: Visually, serological tests and test plants (Gomphrena globosa), differentiated between susceptible and without virus symptoms (extreme resistant or hypersensitive).

Pvs

PVS resistance (extreme resistance, hypersensibility).

Research institute/worker: IPZ Gross Lüsewitz, HAMANN, U., SCHOLZ, M., 1964-67.

Plant material: Seedlings, 12-20 genotypes per number.

Infection material: PVS-isolate from cultivar "Leona". Infection by hand and partly by spray pistol, control of hypersensibility by grafting on PVS-infected tomato plants. Period of investigations: April-May.

Detection: Visually, mainly serological tests and test plants (Nicotiana debneyi), only differentiation between susceptible and without virus symptoms, hypersensitive reaction by grafting.

Pvm

PVM resistance (extreme resistance, hypersensibility).

Research institute/worker: IPZ Gross Lüsewitz, SCHOLZ, M.; Research and Plant Breeding Institute Havlickuv Brod, CSFR, ZADINA, J.

Plant material: Seedlings, average 20 per number, and clones growing of this genotypes, which are as seedling without virus symptoms

Infection material: PVM-isolate from cultivar "King Edward" (Gross Lüsewitz) and cultivar "Oslava" (Havlickuv Brod).

Infection method: Inoculation by hand and grafting of clones on tomato plants.

Period of investigations: May-June.

Detection: Visually, mainly serological tests.

Dmatter

Dry matter / starch content of tuber.

Research institute/worker: IPZ Gross Lüsewitz, ROTHACKER, D., until 1987.

Plant material from assortment cropping, tubers from clones or seedlings (in this case a mixture of genotypes), 60-100 g fresh matter per number, in few cases less.

Investigation method: Drying at 60C during 24 hours in connection with the determination of protein content; or determination of specific gravity.

Period of investigations: November-February.

Classification: L = <25% Dry matter or <18% starch content, H = >26% Dry matter or >20% starch content. Determination of specific gravity by SCHEELE (WIESSMANN-NEHRING 1951).

Amylose

Amylose content of starch.

Research institute/worker: IPZ Gross Lüsewitz; EFFMERT, B., ROTHACKER, D.

Plant material from assortment cropping, tubers from clones or seedlings, divided in genotypes.

Investigation method: Isolation of starch by washing out from row tuber pulp, analysis with the help of "Blauwertmethode", modified by ULMAN et AUGUSTAT.

Classification: L = <20,4%; M = 20,5 - 27,4%; H = >27,5% amylose content.

Protein

Crude protein content.

Research institute/worker: IPZ Gross Lüsewitz; EFFMERT, B., ROTHACKER, D.

Plant material from assortment cropping, tubers from clones or seedlings (in this case a mixture of genotypes), 60-100 g fresh matter per number, in few cases less. Determination of nitrogen content by Kjehldahl (in dry matter).

Classification: L = <2,4%, H = >3,5% crude protein content.

Vitc

Ascorbic acid content.

Research institute/worker: IPZ Gross Lüsewitz; EFFMERT, B., ROTHACKER, D.

Plant material from assortment cropping, tubers from clones or seedlings (in this case a mixture of genotypes), 60-100 g fresh matter per number, in few cases less. Determination of ascorbic acid content by TILLMANS (FRANKE, 1956); titration according to data_by STROHECKER et MATT (1951).

Investigations at two times: in winter (November-February), in spring (April).

Classification: M = ascorbic acid content like standard, H = >110% than standard in winter, VH = >110% than standard in spring.

Chipping

Color of chips after at least 3 months cold storing.

Research institute/worker: IfK Gross Lüsewitz , ROTHACKER, D., GRASSERT, V.; 1990-1991; IPK Genebank External Branch Gross Lüsewitz, SCHÜLER, K. since 1992.

Material from assortment cropping, tubers from clones or seedlings, in the most cases divided into genotypes Slicing of tubers (1 mm thick, ca 5 tubers per number and 3-5 slices per tuber), baking out in 180 C hot plant fat, visual determination of chip colour according to a colour scale (1 - 5), February-March.

Classification: 1 = dark brown-blackish-brown, 2 = light brown-brown, 3 = dark yellow, 4 = yellow - light yellow with few darker stipples, 5 = light yellow without darker stipples.